Posted by: fiqhplatform | August 27, 2011

Adab of wudu’

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

 

Etiquettes  of Ablution

There are fourteen adab of wudu’:

  1. To sit upon an elevated place;
  2. to face the Qibla;
  3. to take no assistance;
  4. and not to speak of mundane affairs;
  5. to combine between the intention of the heart and a verbal formula;
  6. to recite the transmitted supplications;
  7. to recite the basmallah whilst washing or doing mash of each limb;
  8. to insert one’s small finger into the canals of the ears;
  9. and to move a loose ring;
  10. to use the right hand in inserting the water into the mouth and nose;
  11. and to use the left hand to clean the nose;
  12. for other than a ma`dhur to perform wudu’ upon the entry of the salah time;
  13. to recite the two declarations of faith after completing the wudu’;Ashhadu alla illaha ilallahu wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abdhu wa ar-rasulluhu
  14. to drink the remainder of the water of wudu’  standing and then to recite,
    Allahum maj’alni minat tawwabina wa j’alni minal mutat ahhirin
    “O Allah make me from the repenters
    and make me from those who attain purity.
  15. ————————————————————————————–
  16. فصل في آداب الوضوء
  17. من آداب الوضوء أربعة عشر شيئا الجلوس في مكان مرتفع واستقبال القبلة وعدم الاستعانة بغيره وعدم التكلم بكلام الناس والجمع بين نية القلب وفعل اللسان والدعاء بالمأثور والتسمية عند كل عضو وإدخال خنصره في صماخ أذنيه وتحريك خاتمه الواسع والمضمضة والاستنشاق باليد اليمنى والامتخاط باليسرى والتوضؤ قبل دخول الوقت لغير المعذور والإتيان بالشهادتين بعده وأن يشرب من فضل الوضوء قائما وأن يقول اللهم اجعلني من التوابين و اجعلني من المتطهرين

  18. —————————————————————————————–
Etiquettes of Ablution

[Etiquettes is defined as things being put in its correct place. It is also said that etiquettes are praiseworthy traits or godliness. In the commentary of Hidaya, it is mentioned as being that which the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, did not do consistently but once or twice. The rule for etiquettes is that there is reward entailed in performing it but no blame in leaving it. Sunna is that which the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, consistently performed but also left without any reason once or twice. The rule for sunna is that there is reward in performing it but blame and not punishment in leaving it.]

There are fourteen main actions that are etiquettes of performing ablution. There are additional ones that will also be mentioned.

1. Sitting at a raised seat
By this, the person performing ablution can avoid used water. .

2. Facing the direction of prayer
This is etiquette other than whilst cleansing oneself. Facing the direction of prayer is a state in which there is greater hope that supplication will be accepted.

3. Placing a small container on the left side and a large container, from which the water is taken, on the right side

4. Performing ablution unassisted
Worship is thereby performed alone without the help of anyone, unless there is a need to do so.

5. Avoiding engaging in conversation
Conversing whilst performing ablution, without any cause, distracts a person from reading the Prophetic supplications.

6. Uniting between the intention of the heart and the action of the tongue
This produces a determination to perform the action.

7. Reading the Prophetic supplications
These are the supplications that have been transmitted from the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, the companions and their students.

8. Mentioning the name of Allah and making intention on washing or wiping each limb
For example, on rinsing the mouth, whilst intending, a person says, “In the name of Allah. Allah, assist me in reciting the Koran, your remembrance, your thanks and worshipping you well.” Also, when rinsing the nose, a person says, “In the name of Allah. Allah, permit me to smell the fragrance of Paradise and prevent me from smelling the stench of Hell.” The same format is used with the remaining limbs.

The person also blesses the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, as is mentioned in Tawdih.

9. Inserting the little finger into the ear hole
This is in order to be thorough when wiping the ears.

10. Moving a loose ring
This is in order to be thorough when washing.

11. Rinsing the mouth and nose with the right hand
This is because of the nobility of the right side.

12. Blowing the nose with the left hand
This is because of the vileness of the left side.

13. Performing ablution before the prayer time has entered
This is etiquette in order for the person to hasten in performing an act of obedience. The exception here is the excused whose ablution, with us, is nullified by the end of the prayer time. According to Zufur, the ablution is nullified when the prayer time enters. Abu Yusuf regards that both the beginning and end of the prayer time nullifies.

14. Reading the two testimonies of faith after ablution, drinking from the remains of the water used in ablution standing and reading, “Allah, make me from those who repent and make me from those who purify themselves” after the ablution
This is read standing and facing the direction of prayer, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “Any one of you who performs ablution properly and then says, ‘I testify that there is no god other than Allah who is One having no partner and that Muhammad is His slave and messenger’ [In one narration, it is mentioned as, ‘I testify that there is no god other than Allah who is One having no partner and that Muhammad is his slave and messenger.’] will have the eight doors of Heaven opened, to enter by any one of them he wishes.” [Muslim 553; Abu Dawud 169 and 170 and Nasa’i 148]

The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, also said, “Whoever, on performing ablution, says, ‘Glory be to You, Allah, and with You is praise. I testify that there is no god other than You. I seek Your forgiveness and turn to You.’ will have a stamp impressed for him that will be placed beneath the Throne and will be brought to the person on Judgement Day.” [Nasa’i in ‘Amal Yawm wa Layla 81 to 83]

Drinking from the remains of the water is etiquette, standing facing the direction of prayer or sitting. The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, drank, standing, the remains of water used in his ablution and Zamzam water. [Bukhari 1637 and 5615 to 5617; Tirmidhi 2694 and 2965 and ibn Majah 3422] He, upon him be peace and blessings, also said, “None of you should drink standing. Thus, whoever forgets should vomit.” [Muslim 5243; Tirmidhi 1879 and ibn Majah 3423, where the narration states, “that the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, prohibited drinking standing.”] There is a consensus amongst the scholars that the offence is slight on medical, and not religious, grounds.

The meaning of “make me from those who repent” is those who turn back from every sin. Tawwab is in the hyperbolic form. It is also said that it is the one who, whenever sin is committed, hastens to repentance. Tawwab is also one of the attributes of Allah, being the One who returns with His favour to every sinner by accepting repentance. 

The meaning of “and make me from those who purify themselves” is those who remove themselves from indecency. Mention of the sinner precedes that of the person who purifies so as to eliminate despair and vanity.

Some additional etiquette includes

  • Not using water warmed by the sun, because it may produce leprosy.
  • Not to reserve a container for oneself alone, because Sacred Law is true, simple and tolerant.
  • Pouring water gently on the face.
  • Not to dry the limbs. However, if a person were to wipe it should not be excessive.
  • The container to be earthenware.
  • Wiping the container handle thrice.
  • Placing the container on the left.
  • Placing the hand on the handle and not the mouth of the container whilst washing.
  • Taking care to wash the inner corner of the eyes.
  • Taking care to wash beneath any ring worn.
  • Crossing the limits of the obligatory components so as to extend the brightness.
  • Filling the container in preparation for the next prayer time.
  • Reciting Sura al-Qadr thrice, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “Whoever recites, after his ablution, ‘We have sent it down on the Night of Influence’ once is from the highest saints. Whoever recites it twice is listed in the register of the martyrs. Whoever recites it thrice is raised in the company of the prophets.” – recorded by Daylami. This has also been mentioned by faqih Abu Layth in his Muqaddima.

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 فصل : من آداب الوضوء )

( أربعة عشر شيئا ) وزيد عليها وهي جمع أدب وعرف بأنه وضع الأشياء موضعها وقيل الخصلة الحميدة وقيل الورع وفي شرح الهداية هو ما فعله النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مرة أو مرتين ولم يواظب عليه وحكمه الثواب بفعله وعدم اللوم على تركه وأما السنة فهي التي واظب عليها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم مع الترك بلا عذر مرة أو مرتين وحكمها الثواب وفي تركها العتاب لا العقاب فآداب الوضوء :
– 1 – ( الجلوس في مكان مرتفع ) تحرزا عن الغسالة
– 2 – ( واستقبال القبلة ) في غير حالة الاستنجاء لأنها حالة أرجى لقبول الدعاء فيها وجعل الإناء الصغير على يساره والكبير الذي يغترف منه على يمينه
– 3 – ( وعدم الاستعانة بغيره ) ليقيم العبادة بنفسه من غير إعانة غيره عليها بلا عذر
– 4 – ( وعدم التكلم بكلام الناس ) لأنه يشغله عن الدعاء المأثور بلا ضرورة
– 5 – ( والجمع بين نية القلب وفعل اللسان ) لتحصيل العزيمة
– 6 – ( والدعاء بالمأثور ) أي المنقول عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والصحابة والتابعين
– 7 – ( والتسمية ) والنية ( عند ) غسل ( كل عضو ) أو مسحه فيقول ناويا عند المضمضة بسم الله اللهم أعني على تلاوة القرآن وذكرك وشكرك وحسن عبادتك وعند الاستنشاق بسم الله اللهم أرحني رائحة الجنة ولا ترحني رائحة النار وهكذا في سائرها ويصلي على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أيضا كما في التوضيح
– 8 – ( و ) من آدابه ( إدخال خنصره في صماخ أذنيه ) مبالغة في المسح
– 9 – ( وتحريك خاتمه الواسع ) للمبالغة في الغسل
– 10 – ( و ) كون ( المضمضة والاستنشاق باليد اليمنى ) لشرفها
– 11 – ( والامتخاط باليسرى ) لامتهانها
– 12 – ( و ) تقديم ( التوضؤ قبل دخول الوقت ) مبادرة للطاعة ( لغير المعذور ) لأن وضوءه ينتقض بخروج الوقت عندنا وبدخوله عند زفر وبهما عند أبي يوسف
– 13 – ( والإتيان بالشهادتين بعده ) قائما مستقبلا لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما منكم من أحد يتوضأ فيسبغ الوضوء ثم يقول أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله وفي رواية أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له وأشهد أن محمدا عبده ورسوله إلا فتحت له أبواب الجنة الثمانية يدخلها من أي باب شاء وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من قال إذا توضأ سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك أشهد أن لا إله إلا أنت أستغفرك وأتوب إليك طبع بطابع ثم جعل تحت العرش حتى يؤتى بصاحبها يوم القيامة ”
– 14 – ( وأن يشرب من فضل الوضوء قائما ) أو قاعدا لأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم شرب قائما من فضل وضوئه وماء زمزم وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” لا يشربن أحدكم قائما فمن نسي فليستقيء ” وأجمع العلماء على كراهته تنزيها لأمر طبي لا ديني [ أي أن التقيؤ غير مستحب طبيا وهناك من يتقيأ بعد الأكل لمنع ازدياد الوزن وهذا يتحول إلى إدمان يصعب التخلص منه . دار الحديث ]
( وأن يقول اللهم اجعلني من التوابين ) أي الراجعين عن كل ذنب والتواب مبالغة وقيل هو الذي كلما أذنب بادر بالتوبة والتواب من صفات الله تعالى أيضا لأنه يرجع بالإنعام على كل مذنب بقبول توبته ( واجعلني من المتطهرين ) أي المتنزهين عن الفواحش وقدم المذنب على المتطهر لدفع القنوط والعجب
ومن الآداب أنه لا يتوضأ بماء مشمس لأنه يورث البرص
ولا يستخلص لنفسه إناء دون غيره لأن الشريعة حنيفية سهلة سمحة
ومنه صب الماء برفق على وجهه
وترك التجفيف وإن مسح لا يبالغ فيه
وأن تكون آنيته من خزف وغسل عروتها ثلاثا ووضعه على يساره ووضع اليد حالة الغسل على عروته لا على رأسه
وتعاهد موقيه وما تحت الخاتم ومجاوزة حدود الفروض وإطالة الغرة وملء آنيته استعدادا لوقت آخر وقراءة سورة القدر ثلاثا لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” من قرأ في إثر وضوئه إنا أنزلناه في ليلة القدر مرة واحدة كان من الصديقين ومن قرأها مرتين كتب في ديوان الشهداء ومن قرأها ثلاثا حشره الله محشر الأنبياء ” أخرجه الديلمي ولما ذكره الفقيه أبو الليث في مقدمته.

  1.  this was translated by a student of knowledge who is helping to run this blog
    may Allah the Exalted reward them
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Posted by: fiqhplatform | August 27, 2011

Sunan of wudu’

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

 

فصل في سنن الوضوء

يسن في الوضوء ثمانية عشر شيئا غسل اليدين الى الرسغين والتسمية ابتداء والسواك في ابتدائه ولو بالإصبع عند فقده والمضمضة ثلاثا ولو بغرفة والاستنشاق بثلاث غرفات والمبالغة في المضمضة والاستنشاق لغير الصائم وتخليل اللحية الكثة بكف ماء من أسفلها وتخليل الأصابع وتثليث الغسل واستيعاب الراس بالمسح مرة ومسح الأذنين ولو بماء الرأس والدلك والولاء والنية والترتيب كما نص الله تعالى في كتابه والبداءة بالميامن ورؤوس الأصابع ومقدم الرأس ومسح الرقبة لا الحلقوم وقيل إن الأربعة الأخيرة مستحبة

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Sunnas of ablution

There are eighteen sunnas of wudu’:

  1. Washing the hands including the wrists;
  2. the recitation of the basmallah (the formula, ‘In the name of Allah the Most Compassionate the Most Merciful’);
  3. to use the miswak (tooth-stick) when commencing the wudu’, to use one’s finger in the absence of the miswak.
  4. to rinse the mouth thrice, even if it is with a single handful of water;
  5. to rinse the nose with three handfuls of water;
  6. if not fasting, to rinse thoroughly the mouth and nose;
  7. to saturate a thick beard by inserting a handful of water from underneath and then to comb it with the fingers upwards;
  8. to pass the wet fingers of one hand into the gaps between the fingers of the other hand,
  9. to wash each limb thrice;
  10. to do the mash of the entire head once;
  11. and the mash of the ears, even though it may be with the leftover water from the mash of the head;
  12. to rub the limbs;
  13. to perform the actions of wudu’ successively;
  14. to make an intention;
  15. to observe the order ordained by Allah in the Qur’an;
  16. to start from the right;
  17. to commence the washing from the tips of the fingers and the performance of the mash of the head from the front;
  18. to wipe the nape and not the throat;

It is an opinion that the last four are mustahab.

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( فصل ) في سنن الوضوء

( يسن في ) حال ( الوضوء ثمانية عشر شيئا ) ذكر العدد تسهيلا للطالب لا للحصر . والسنة لغة الطريقة ولو سيئة واصطلاحا الطريقة المسلوكة في الدين من غير لزوم على المواظبة وهي المؤكدة إن كان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم تركها أحيانا وأما التي لم يواظب عليها فهي المندوبة وإن اقترنت بوعيد لمن لم يفعلها فهي للوجوب
– 1 – فيسن ( غسل اليدين إلى الرسغين ) في ابتداء الوضوء الرسغ بضم الراء وسكون السين المهملة وبالغين المعجمة المفصل الذي بين الساعد والكف وبين الساق والقدم وسواء استيقظ من نوم أو لا ولكنه آكد في الذي استيقظ لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” إذا استيقظ أحدكم من منامه فلا يغمس يده في الإناء حتى يغسلها ” ولفظ مسلم حتى يغسلها ثلاثا فإنه لا يدري أين باتت يده وإذا لم يمكن إمالة الإناء يدخل أصبع يسراه الخالية عن نجاسة متحققة ويصب على كفه اليمنى حتى ينقيها ثم يدخل اليمنى ويغسل يسراه وإن زاد على قدر الضرورة فأدخل الكف صار الماء مستعملا
– 2 – ( والتسمية ابتداء ) حتى لو نسيها فتذكرها في خلاله لا تحصل له السنة بخلاف الأكل لأن الوضوء عمل واحد وكل لقمة فعل مستأنف لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” من توضأ وذكر الله فإنه يطهر جسده كله ومن توضأ ولم يذكر اسم الله لم يطهر إلا موضع الوضوء ” والمنقول عن السلف وقيل عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في لفظها باسم الله العظيم والحمد لله على دين الإسلام وقيل الأفضل بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم لعموم ” كل ذي بال ” الحديث ويسمي كذلك قبل الاستنجاء وكشف العورة في الأصح
– 3 – ( والسواك ) بكسر السين اسم للاستياك والعود أيضا والمراد الأول لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم لولا أن أشق على أمتي لأمرتهم بالسواك عند كل صلاة أو مع كل صلاة ولما ورد أن كل صلاة به تفضل سبعين صلاة بدونه . وينبغي أن يكون لينا في غلظ الأصبع طول شبر مستويا قليل العقد من الأراك وهو من سنن الوضوء ووقته المسنون ( في ابتدائه ) لأن الابتداء به سنة أيضا عند المضمضة على قول الأكثر وقال غيرهم قبل الوضوء وهو من سنن الوضوء عندنا لا من سنن الصلاة فتحصل فضيلته لكل صلاة أداها بوضوء استاك فيه . ويستحب لتغير الفم والقيام من النوم وإلى الصلاة ودخول البيت واجتماع الناس وقراءة القرآن والحديث لقول الإمام إنه من سنن الدين وقال عليه الصلاة والسلام ” السواك مطهرة للفم مرضاة للرب ” فيستوي فيه جميع الأحوال وفضله يحصل ( ولو ) كان الاستياك ( بالأصبع ) أو خرقة خشنة ( عند فقده ) أي السواك أو فقد أسنانه أو ضرر بفمه لقوله عليه السلام ” يجزئ من السواك الأصابع ” وقال علي رضي الله عنه : التشويص بالمسبحة والإبهام سواك ويقوم العلك مقامه للنساء لرقة بشرتهن . والسنة في أخذه أن تجعل خنصر يمينك أسفله والبنصر والسبابة فوقه والإبهام أسفل رأسه كما رواه ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه ولا يقبضه لأنه يورث الباسور ويكره مضطجعا لأنه يورث كبر الطحال وجمع العارف بالله تعالى الشيخ أحمد الزاهد فضائله بمؤلف سماه تحفة السلاك في فضائل السواك
– 4 – ( والمضمضة ) وهي اصطلاحا استيعاب الماء جميع الفم وفي اللغة التحريك ويسن أن تكون ( ثلاثا ) لأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم توضأ فمضمض ثلاثا واستنشق ثلاثا يأخذ لكل واحدة ماء جديدا ( ولو ) تمضمض ثلاثا ( بغرفة ) واحدة أقام سنة المضمضة لا سنة التكرير
– 5 – ( والاستنشاق ) وهو لغة من النشق جذب الماء ونحوه بريح الأنف إليه واصطلاحا إيصال الماء إلى المارن وهو ما لان من الأنف ويكون ( بثلاث غرفات ) للحديث ولا يصح التثليث بواحدة لعدم انطباق الأنف عل باقي الماء بخلاف المضمضة
– 6 – ( و ) يسن ( المبالغة في المضمضة ) وهي إيصال الماء لرأس الحلق ( و ) المبالغة في ( الاستنشاق ) وهي إيصاله إلى ما فوق المارن ( لغير الصائم ) والصائم لا يبالغ فيها خشية إفساد الصوم لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام ” بالغ في المضمضة والاستنشاق إلا أن تكون صائما ”
– 7 – ( و ) يسن في الأصح ( تخليل اللحية الكثة ) وهو قول أبي يوسف لرواية أبي داود عن أنس أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يخلل لحيته والتخليل تفريق الشعر من جهة الأسفل إلى فوق ويكون بعد غسل الوجه ثلاثا ( بكف ماء من أسفلها ) لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم كان إذا توضأ أخذ كفا من ماء تحت حنكه فخلل به لحيته وقال ” بهذا أمرني ربي عز وجل ” وأبو حنيفة ومحمد يفضلانه لعدم المواظبة ولأنه لإكمال الفرض وداخلها ليس محلا له بخلاف تخليل الأصابع ورجح في المبسوط قول أبي يوسف لرواية أنس رضي الله عنه
– 8 – ( و ) يسن ( تخليل الأصابع ) كلها للأمر به ولقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” من لم يخلل أصابعه بالماء خللها الله بالنار يوم القيامة ” وكيفيته في اليدين إدخال بعضها في بعض وفي الرجلين بأصبع من يده ويكفي عنه إدخالها في الماء الجاري ونحوه
– 9 – ( و ) يسن ( تثليث الغسل ) فمن زاد أو نقص فقد تعدى وظلم كما ورد في السنة إلا لضرورة
– 10 – ( و ) يسن ( استيعاب الرأس بالمسح ) كما فعله النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ( مرة ) كمسح الجبيرة والتيمم لأن وضعه للتخفيف
– 11 – ( و ) يسن ( مسح الأذنين ولو بماء الرأس ) لأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم غرف غرفة فمسح بها رأسه وأذنيه فإن أخذ لهما ماءا جديدا مع بقاء البلة كان حسنا
– 12 – ( و ) يسن ( الدلك ) لفعله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعد الغسل بإمرار يده على الأعضاء
– 13 – ( و ) يسن ( الولاء ) لمواظبته صلى الله عليه وسلم وهو بكسر الواو للمتابعة بغسل الأعضاء قبل جفاف السابق مع الاعتدال جسدا وزمانا ومكانا
– 14 – ( و ) يسن ( النية ) وهي لغة عزم القلب على الفعل واصطلاحا توجه القلب لإيجاد الفعل جزما ووقتها قبل الاستنجاء ليكون جميع فعله قربة . وكيفيتها أن ينوي رفع الحدث أو إقامة الصلاة أو ينوي الوضوء أو امتثال الأمر ومحلها القلب فإن نطق بها ليجمع بين فعل القلب واللسان استحبه المشايخ والنية سنة لتحصيل الثواب لأن المأمور به ليس إلا غسلا ومسحا في الآية ولم يعلمه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم للأعرابي مع جهله وفرضت في التيمم لأنه بالتراب وليس مزيلا للحدث بالأصالة
– 15 – ( و ) يسن ( الترتيب ) سنة مؤكدة في الصحيح وهو ( كما نص الله تعالى في كتابه ) ولم يكن فرضا لأن الواو في الأمر لمطلق الجمع والفاء التي في قوله تعالى فاغسلوا لتعقيب جملة الأعضاء
– 16 – ( و ) يسن ( البداءة بالميامن ) جمع ميمنة خلاف الميسرة في اليدين والرجلين لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” إذا توضأتم فابدءوا بميامنكم ” وصرف الأمر عن الوجوب بالإجماع على استحبابه لشرف اليمنى
– 17 – ( و ) يسن البداءة بالغسل من ( رؤوس الأصابع ) في اليدين والرجلين لأن الله تعالى جعل المرافق والكعبين غاية الغسل فتكون منتهى الفعل كما فعله النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم
– 18 – ( و ) يسن البداءة في المسح من ( مقدم الرأس )
– 19 – ( و ) يسن ( مسح الرقبة ) لأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم توضأ وأومأ بيديه من مقدم رأسه حتى بلغ بهما أسفل عنقه من قبل قفاه و ( لا ) يسن مسح ( الحلقوم ) بل هو بدعة ( وقيل إن الأربعة الأخيرة ) التي أولها البداءة بالميامن ( مستحبة ) وكأن وجهه عدم ثبوت المواظبة وليس مسلما.

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Sunnas of Abution

[In Arabic language, sunna is a path, even if it be an evil path. However, in Islamic terminology, sunna is a path that is consistently followed in religion, without being compulsory. It is an emphasised sunna if the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, left it occasionally, and is recommended if he, upon him be peace and blessings, did not perform it consistently. It becomes necessary if there is mention of the threat of punishment for the one who leaves it.]

There are eighteen [This number has been mentioned to simplify matters for students. However, in reality, the number of sunna acts is more than this.] actions that are sunna whilst performing ablution.

1.  Washing both hands to the wrists
[The word for wrist in Arabic language is rusgh. This word can also be used for ankle, as is stated in Misbah Munir.]

This is sunna at the beginning of the ablution, whether or not the person has just woken from sleep. However, there is stronger emphasis for the person who has just woken, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “When one of you wakes from his sleep he should not insert his hand in the container until he has washed them.”  Bukhari 162; Muslim 643 to 647; Abu Dawud 103 to 105; Tirmidhi 24 and ibn Majah 393 to 395. The wording is from Muslim.The wording of Muslim continues, “until he has washed them thrice, for he does not know where his hand has been.”

If a person who has impurity on the hand cannot tilt the container, the fingers of the hand that is free of impurity is entered and the water collected is poured on the other hand until it is cleansed. The other hand is then inserted in order to wash the first hand. However, if this is done more than is necessary and the whole hand is inserted the water will become used.

2. Mentioning the name of Allah at the beginning
If a person forgets this but remembers whilst performing and then mentions the name of Allah the sunna has not been attained. This differs to the rule for eating because ablution is a complete act whereas every morsel eaten is an individual act. The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, said, “Whoever performs ablution and mentions the name of Allah the whole of his body is cleansed. However, whoever performs ablution and does not mention the name of Allah only the parts of ablution are cleansed.” [Daraqutni 228 to 230; Bayhaqi 1:199 to 201 and ibn Abi Shayba, Section on Mentioning the Name of Allah with the Ablution, who mentions the tradition as interrupted at Abu Bakr, Allah be pleased with him.]

The wording of this that has been transmitted from the early Muslims – and it is said, from the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings – is, “In the name of Allah the Most Great. Praise is to Allah for the religion of Islam.” It is also said that the best is to say, “In the name of Allah the Most Merciful the Very Merciful”, because of the general nature of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “Any significant matter that does not begin with ‘In the name of Allah the Most Merciful the Very Merciful’ is severed.”

The name of Allah is also mentioned prior to cleansing oneself and exposing the nakedness, according to the most correct position.

3. Using the tooth stick
[Tooth stick, in Arabic language, is known as siwak or miswak. However, the word siwak is equally used for the act of using the tooth stick.]

This is sunna because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “Were I not to cause difficulty on my community I would have ordered them to use the tooth stick at every prayer,” [Bukhari 887 and Muslim 589.] or “with every prayer.” [This is the ending as mentioned in the narration of Bukhari.] It has also been narrated that, “every prayer with it is superior to seventy prayers without it.” [Haythami in Majm’a Zawaid, Section on That Which has Come on Using the Tooth Stick, where he traces the tradition to Ahmad, Bazzar and Abu Y’ala. He further states that Hakim has authenticated it.]

It is preferred that the tooth stick is from the arak tree [The arak tree is a citrus tree that has fruits resembling grapes.], soft, being a finger in thickness, a hand span in length and straight with few knots.

With us, using the tooth stick is from the sunnas of ablution and not from the sunnas of prayer. Therefore, the virtues of the tooth stick are attained with every prayer performed with an ablution in which the tooth stick had been used.

The moment when it is sunna to use is at the beginning of the ablution. According to the statement of the majority, however, the sunna is on rinsing the mouth. Others have said that time is before ablution.

It is further recommended to use the tooth stick when
•    The mouth odour has changed.
•    Waking from sleep.
•    Intending to pray.
•    Returning home.
•    People have gathered.
•    Reading Koran or traditions.

This is because of the statement of the Imam, “It is from the sunnas of the religion.” In addition, the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, said, “Using the tooth stick is a purification for the mouth and pleasing to the Lord.”  [Nasa’i 5. Bukhari has mentioned this as a suspended tradition in the Chapter on Fasting] This indicates that the use of a tooth stick is equal in all situations.

In the absence of a tooth stick, the virtue is attained if a finger or a coarse cloth is used, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “The fingers suffice for the tooth stick.” [Bayhaqi 1:177 and 178.] Also, Ali, Allah be pleased with him, has said, “Moving with the index finger or the thumb is using the tooth stick.” For women, mastic replaces the tooth stick because of the soft nature of their gums.

The sunna in holding the tooth stick, as has been narrated by ibn Mas’ud, is to place the small finger beneath it, the ring and index finger above it and the thumb beneath its head. It should not be grasped, because it could possibly cause haemorrhoids. It is offensive to be used reclining, because it could possibly cause inflammation of the spleen.

The knower of Allah, the ascetic, Shaykh Ahmad has gathered the virtues of using the tooth stick in a work entitled Tuhfa Sullak fi Fadha’il Siwak. [“Gift to the Travellers on the Virtues of Using the Tooth Stick.”]

4. Rinsing the mouth
In the Arabic language, this means a movement. However, in Islamic terminology, it means to cover all the mouth with water. [mentioned by Zayla’i in Nasb Raya, 7 where he states that Tabarani has narrated this tradition.]

It is sunna that this is done thrice, because he, upon him be peace and blessings, “performed ablution, rinsing his mouth thrice and nose thrice. Each time, he took fresh water.” 

If rinsing the mouth is performed with one handful the sunna of rinsing the mouth is accomplished, but not the sunna of repeating the rinsing.

5. Rinsing the nose
In Arabic language, rinsing the nose is istinshaq which comes from the word nashq, which means to draw water or its likes into the nose with the nose wind. In Islamic terminology, it means to take water into the nose cartilage.

Rinsing the nose is performed with three handfuls, because of the aforementioned tradition. It is not valid for the nose to be rinsed thrice with one handful of water, because the nose is not able to hold in the water, as opposed to when rinsing the mouth.

6. Exaggerating in rinsing the mouth and nose
Exaggerating in rinsing the mouth is performed by taking water to the back of the throat, and exaggerating in rinsing the nose is performed by taking the water to the back of the nose. However, the person fasting does not do so, from fear of invalidating the fast. The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, said, “Exaggerate in rinsing the mouth and the nose unless you are fasting.” [Abu Dawud 142; Tirmidhi 788, Nasa’i 87 and ibn Majah 407.  The phrase “rinsing the mouth” does not appear in the narrations of the Compilers of the Four Sunan.]

7. Saturating the thick beard with a palm of water from the bottom
According to the most correct position this is sunna. This is the statement of Abu Yusuf, because of the narration of Abu Dawud from Anas that the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, used to saturate his beard. [The wording of this tradition is not related by Abu Dawud on the authority of Anas. Rather, this wording has been related by Tirmidhi 31 and ibn Majah 430 on the authority of ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan. Tirmidhi further adds that Muhammad ibn Isma’il (i.e. Bukhari) has commented that this is the most authentic tradition on this matter.]

Saturation is to separate the hair, working from the bottom upwards. It is performed after the face has been washed thrice.

It is performed with a palm of water because the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, would, when performing ablution, take a palm of water from under his lower mouth and saturate his beard with it. He, upon him be peace and blessings, said, “This is as my Lord, Mighty and Majestic is He, has ordered me.” [Abu Dawud 145.]

Abu Hanifa and Muhammad prefer it, because it was not done consistently. Furthermore, it is performed to complete the obligation of washing the face and the inner part of the beard is not part of this obligation, as opposed to saturating the fingers.

In Mabsut, the author has favoured the stance of Abu Yusuf, because of the narration of Anas.

8. Saturating the fingers and toes
It is sunna to saturate between all the fingers, because of the order to do this [For example, the tradition of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, as narrated by the Compilers of the Four Sunan, “When you perform ablution do so properly and saturate between the fingers.” This has been mentioned by Zayla’i in Nasb Raya, in the Section on the Traditions on Saturating the Fingers, where he has collated other traditions on the subject.] and because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “Whoever does not saturate between the fingers with water Allah will saturate between them with fire on Judgement Day.” [This has been mentioned by Haythami in Majm’a Zawaid, in the Section on Saturation. He adds that in the chain is ‘Ala ibn Kathir Laythi, about whom there is a consensus that he is weak.]

The manner of saturating the hands is to intermesh between the two sets of fingers, whilst the manner of saturating the toes is to use one finger. It suffices if the fingers and toes are put under flowing water or something similar.

9. Washing thrice
Whoever does more or less has overstepped the mark and done wrong, as has been related from the sunna [For example, the tradition of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, as narrated by Abu Dawud 135, where, after showing a man how to perform the ablution, with each limb being washed thrice, he, upon him be peace and blessings, said, “Ablution is like this. Thus, whoever does more than this or less has done bad and wrong – or done wrong and bad.”], unless there is a necessity.

10. Wiping all of the head once
This is as was done by the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings. [Abu Dawud 129 and Tirmidhi 34.] The wiping is performed once, as with wiping over a bandage and the dry ablution, because wiping has been ordained for ease.

11. Wiping the ears
Wiping can be performed even with water used for the head, because the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, took a handful of water and wiped his head and ears. It is fine if fresh water is taken, despite there being some remnants of wetness.

12. Rubbing the limbs
This is sunna because the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, would do so [Daraqutni 329 and Bayhaqi 1:250 and 251.], after washing the limbs, by running his hand over them.

13. Continuity
This is sunna because the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, consistently did so. Continuity is defined as washing the limbs before the previous limb has dried, assuming moderate body temperature, time and place.

14. Intention
In Arabic language, intention is the determination of the heart to perform an action. In Islamic terminology, it is the heart focusing on generating an act, with certainty.
The moment of the intention is before cleansing oneself, so that all of the action can be a righteous act.

The manner of intending is either to intend
•    Lifting a state of ritual impurity.
•    Establishing the prayer.
•    Performing ablution.
•    Obeying an order.

The place of the intention is the heart. The scholars have, in addition, recommended for a person to utter the intention, so as to unite between the action of the heart and tongue.

Intention is sunna for a person wanting to attain reward, because in the verse of ablution the only order mentioned is to wash and wipe. Nor did the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, teach the Bedouin, despite his ignorance. []

Intention is obligatory in dry ablution, because dry ablution is performed with earth which is not a direct remover of ritual impurity.

15. Maintaining the order as stated in the Koran
This is an emphasised sunna, according to the correct position. It is not obligatory, because the waw in the order is there to indicate a general combination. The fa in his statement, “wash your faces” [al-Ma’idah 6] indicates that mention of the limbs will follow.

16. Beginning with the right side
This is sunna for the hands and feet, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “When you perform ablution, begin with your right side.” [Abu Dawud 4141 and ibn Majah 402.] The order is not regarded as necessary, because of the consensus that it is recommended due to the nobility of the right side.

17. Beginning with the fingertips and tips of the toes
This is sunna, because Allah has delineated the elbows and ankles as the limit of washing. Thus, these become the farthest point of the action. This was the manner in which it was performed by the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings.

18. Beginning with the front of the head when wiping

19. Wiping the nape
This is sunna because the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, performed ablution and moved his hands from the front of his head until they reached the bottom of the nape. [The wording mentioned in the text is from Tabarani, as mentioned in I’la Sunan.]

It is not sunna, but an innovation, to wipe the throat.

It is said that the last four are recommended. It seems that the basis for this is that these actions were not consistently performed. However, this is not accepted.

Posted by: fiqhplatform | August 27, 2011

Additional rulings on wudu’

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

 

Further Points on Ablution

It is incumbent to wash the visible part of a thick beard. As for a sparse beard it is incumbent that the water reaches the skin.  Whilst it is not necessary that water reaches the hair hanging from the periphery of the face, nor that water reaches the concealed part of the lips when the mouth is closed.

If the fingers are tightly held together, or a nail has grown so long that it has covered the finger tip, or there is something in the nail which prevents the water from reaching the finger tip, such as dough, then it will be incumbent and wash underneath.  Substances such as dirt do not prevent the penetration of water.

It is incumbent that a tight ring be moved about.  If washing the cracks in one’s feet is harmful, then it will suffice to allow water to flow over the medicine applied to them.

One is not required to repeat the mash or washing of any limb from where the hair have been shaved, nor is one required to wash after cutting one’s nails or trimming one’s moustache.

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فصل في تمام أحكام الوضوء

يجب غسل ظاهر اللحية الكثة في أصح ما يفتى به ويجب إيصال الماء الى بشرة اللحية الخفيفة ولا يجب إيصال الماء الى المسترسل من الشعر عن دائرة الوجه ولا الى ما انكتم من الشفتين عند الانضمام . ولو انضمت الأصابع أو طال الظفر فغطى الأنملة أو كان فيه ما يمنع الماء كعجين وجب غسل ما تحته ولا يمنع الدرن وخرء البراغيث ونحوها . ويجب تحريك الخاتم الضيق . ولو ضره غسل شقوق رجليه جاز إمرار الماء على الدواء الذي وضعه فيها . ولا يعاد المسح ولا الغسل على موضع الشعر بعد حلقه ولا الغسل بقص ظفره وشاربه .

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It is obligatory to wash the surface of a thick beard, according to the most correct fatwa from those that have been authenticated. A thick beard is that beard through which the skin beneath cannot be seen. Washing the surface of the beard suffices because the beard takes the place of the skin and thus the obligation passes on to it. Those who held the position that a third or a quarter of a thick beard suffices or wiping all of it or similar statements have turned away from these statements.

It is obligatory to pass water to the skin beneath a sparse beard, according to the chosen position. With a sparse beard, the skin still faces a person and there is no difficulty in washing it. However, it is said that the obligation is dropped, because the skin does not completely face a person due to the growth on it.

It is not obligatory to wash the hair of the beard that extends beyond the face, because this hair is not part of the face itself nor is it a substitute for any part of the face.

It is not obligatory to wash the part of the lips that cannot be seen when the lips are closed normally. The part of the lips that can be seen is considered as being from the mouth, according to the correct position, and the part of the lips that appear is considered as being from the face. Nor is it obligatory to wash the eyes, even if ritual bath is being performed, because of the potential harm that could be caused. The inside of an ulcer that has healed but has not separated from its shell does not have to be washed, because of the necessity. The exception is the cut from which puss flows.

If fingers join in such a manner that water cannot naturally flow between them, or finger nails and toe nails grow in such a manner that they cover the finger tips and toe tips respectively and prevent water reaching beneath it is obligatory to wash beneath. Equally, if there is anything that prevents water reaching the skin, such as dough, wax and sleep around the eyes when closed, on any part that is obligatory to be washed it is obligatory to wash beneath it after having removed the barrier. However, dirt beneath the nails does not prevent water, whether the person is a villager or a city dweller, according to the correct position. Therefore, washing is valid with it present. Flea or fly droppings do not prevent water reaching the body because water can penetrate through the droppings due to their being miniscule and not being sticky. Whatever paint is on the nails of a painter does not prevent the validity of the ablution because of the necessity, according to fatwa.

It is necessary to loosen a tight ring, according to the chosen view of the two positions. A tight ring clearly does prevent water reaching the finger. The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, when performing ablution would loosen his ring.

Likewise, it is necessary to loosen any earring, because of the tightness present. High probability suffices in attempting to determine whether water has reached the earring hole. Thus, a person does not have to pass something fine through the hole to ensure the water has entered, due to the difficulty involved.

If washing cuts on the feet is harmful it is valid to pass water over the ointment that has been used, because of the necessity,

After cutting hair, it is not required to rewash the hair, even if the original washing was due to sexual impurity, or to wipe the hair again, after having performed ablution, because of the absence of any fresh ritual impurity. For the same reason, after clipping the nails or trimming the moustache, rewashing is not required. However, in all the above instances, rewashing is recommended.

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(  فصل ) في تمام أحكام الوضوء )

يقدم الكلام على اللحية قال ( يجب ) يعني يفترض ( غسل ظاهر اللحية الكثة ) وهي التي لا ترى بشرتها ( في أصح ما يفتى به ) من التصاحيح في حكمها لقيامها مقام البشرة بتحول الفرض إليها ورجعوا عما قيل من الاكتفاء بثلثها أو ربعها أو مسح كلها ونحوه ( ويجب ) يعني يفترض ( إيصال الماء إلى بشرة اللحية الخفيفة ) في المختار لبقاء المواجهة بها وعدم عسر غسلها وقيل يسقط لانعدام كمال المواجهة بالنبات ( ولا يجب إيصال الماء إلى المسترسل من الشعر عن دائرة الوجه ) لأنه ليس منه أصالة ولا بدلا عنه ( ولا ) يجب إيصال الماء ( إلى ما انكتم من الشفتين عند الانضمام ) المعتاد لأن المنضم تبع للفم في الأصح وما يظهر تبع للوجه ولا باطن العينين ولو في الغسل للضرر ولا داخل قرحة برأت ولم ينفصل من قشرها سوى مخرج القيح للضرورة ( ولو انضمت الأصابع ) بحيث لا يصل الماء بنفسه إلى ما بينها ( أو طال الظفر فغطى الأنملة ) ومنع وصول الماء إلى ما تحته ( أو كان فيه ) يعني المحل المفروض غسله ( ما ) أي شيء ( يمنع الماء ) أن يصل إلى الجسد ( كعجين ) وشمع ورمص بخارج العين بتغميضها ( وجب ) أي افترض ( غسل ما تحته بعد إزالته المانع ( ولا يمنع الدرن ) أي وسخ الأظفار سواء القروي والمصري في الأصح فيصح الغسل مع وجوده ( و ) لا يمنع ( خرء البراغيث ونحوها ) كونيم الذباب وصول الماء إلى البدن لنفوذه فيه لقلته وعدم لزوجته ولا ما على ظفر الصباغ من صبغ للضرورة وعليه الفتوى ( ويجب ) أي يلزم ( تحريك الخاتم الضيق ) في المختار من الروايتين لأنه يمنع الوصول ظاهرا وكان صلى الله عليه وسلم إذا توضأ حرك خاتمه وكذا يجب تحريك القرط في الأذن لضيق محله والمعتبر غلبة الظن لإيصال الماء ثقبه فلا يتكلف لإدخال عود في ثقب للحرج والقرط بضم القاف وسكون الراء ما يتعلق في شحمة الأذن ( ولو ضره غسل شقوق رجليه جاز ) أي صح ( إمرار الماء على الدواء الذي وضعه فيها ) أي الشقوق للضرورة ( ولا يعاد الغسل ) ولو من جنابة ( ولا المسح ) في الوضوء ( على موضع الشعر بعد حلقه ) لعدم طروء حدث به ( و ) كذا ( لا ) يعاد ( الغسل بقص ظفره وشاربه ) لعدم طروء حدث وإن استحب الغسل .

Posted by: fiqhplatform | August 27, 2011

Rulings of wudu’

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

فصل في أحكام الوضوء

أركان الوضوء أربعة وهي فرائضه الأول غسل الوجه وحده طولا من مبدأ سطح الجبهة الى أسفل الذقن وحده عرضا ما بين شحمتي الأذنين والثاني غسل يديه مع مرفقيه والثالث غسل رجليه مع كعبيه والرابع مسح ربع رأسه .

وسببه استباحة ما لا يحل إلا به وهو حكمه الدنيوي وحكمه الأخروي الثواب في الآخرة .

وشرط وجوبه العقل والبلوغ والاسلام وقدرة على استعمال الماء الكافي ووجود الحدث وعدم الحيض والنفاس وضيق الوقت . وشرط صحته ثلاثة عموم البشرة بالماء الطهور وانقطاع ما ينافيه من حيض ونفاس وحدث وزوال ما يمنع وصول الماء الى الجسد كشمع وشحم .

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Ablution

Rulings concerning ablution
3.1.1 Integrals of ablution

Wudu’  consists of four fard acts:

(1) To wash the face from the point where the hairline usually begins to the bottom of the chin in length, and in breadth the portion between the two earlobes.
(2)  washing the arms up to and including the elbows;
(3) to wash the feet up to and including the ankle bones;
(4) and to wipe with a moist hand (mash) over a quarter of the head.

3.1.2 The cause of ablution


The reason for performing wudu’ is to make lawful that which is otherwise unlawful without it, these are its benefits in this world.  Whilst its benefits in the Hereafter is the attainment of rewards.

3.1.3 Conditions for it to be obligatory

Conditions for Wudu’ to be Fard
(a) Sanity;
(b) puberty;
(c) one must be a Muslim;
(d) to possess enough water
(e) to be ritually impure;
(f) to be free from menses and postnatal bleeding;
(g)  and to have enough time.

3.1.4 Conditions of validity

Conditions for the validity of Wudu’
(1)  Pure water reaches the skin of those parts which are required to be washed;
(2)  that one is free from those things which are incompatible with wudu’, such as menses, postnatal bleeding, factors perpetuating ritual impurity;
(3)  and the removal of that which prevents the water from reaching the skin, such as wax and fat.

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In Sacred Law, ablution is defined as a specific cleanliness. This contains the linguistic meaning, in that the person performing ablution is excelling towards the limbs washed in the ablution by cleansing them in this world, and in the afterlife, by the limbs of ablution being brightened as reward for fulfilling service of the Master.

Ablution precedes ritual bath because Allah has mentioned it first in the Koran.

Rulings concerning ablution
Integrals of ablution

The integrals of ablution, which are its obligatory components, are four.

1.  Washing the face
This is obligatory because of His statement, “wash your faces.”

Ghasl is the verbal noun of ‘ghasaltuhu’ . Ghusl is the noun. Ghisl is that which is used to wash with, e.g. soap.

Washing is defined as making water flow on the area such that the water drips. The minimum number of drops is two, according to the correct position. Making the water flow without drops trickling does not suffice.

The face is that which faces a person. The boundary of the face is from the beginning of the top of the forehead, whether the person has hair or not, to the bottom of the chin, in length. The forehead is that which is between the two temples. The chin is the point at which the both jawbones meet.  In breadth, the boundary of the face is between the two ear lobes. A portion of each limit is included within the obligation of the face because it is connected to the face. It is obligatory to wash the clear space between the beard and ear, according to the correct position. However, according to Abu Yusuf, the requirement is dropped by the beard growth.

2. Washing both hands with the elbows
Washing one of the elbows is obligatory by the explicit meaning of the text. The mention of plural with the plural necessitates singular with the singular. Washing of the second elbow is obligatory by the inferred meaning of the text, because both elbows are exactly the same, and by consensus. The elbow is the meeting point of the upper arm and forearm, and in Arabic language, although it is known as mirfaq, it can also be said as marfiq.

3. Washing both feet with the ankles
This is obligatory because of His statement, “and your feet”.  The reading of this with the genitive case is due to proximity. The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, after washing his feet said, “This is the ablution of the one from whom Allah does not accept a prayer without it.”

Washing of the ankles is obligatory because the limit is included in with that to which the limit is set.

The ankles, which in Arabic language are k’aban, are the elevated bones on either side of both feet. The word is derived from elevation, which is highlighted in examples such as Kaaba and ka’ib, being the buxom woman whose breasts are developing.

4. Wiping a quarter of the head
This is obligatory because the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, wiped his forelock. 

The area that is wiped is above the ears. Thus, wiping a quarter of this area is valid. It is not valid to wipe any hair that descends beneath the ears. Therefore, it is not valid to wipe any plaits that are tied on the head.

The claim that the obligatory amount to be wiped is three fingers is rejected, even if it has been authenticated.

In Sacred Law, wiping is defined as touching a limb with a wet hand, even if the hand is wet after washing a limb. However, it is not valid if the hand is wet after wiping a limb or with wetness taken from a limb. If water or rain falls on the obligatory amount it suffices.

The cause of ablution

The cause  of ablution is to make lawful, i.e. to want that which is not lawful without it, such as prayer, touching the Koran and circling the Kaaba. This is its rule in relation to this world. As for its rule in relation to the afterlife it is the attainment of reward if performed with intention, as is the case with any act of worship..

Conditions of obligation

There are eight conditions of obligation, i.e. for a person to be regarded as legally responsible, for the ablution.
 

  1. Intellect, without which there is no divine injunction.
  2. Maturity, because there is no legal responsibility for a legal minor by divine injunction.
  3. Islam, because the requirements of Sacred Law are not addressed to the non-Muslim.
  4. The ability of the legally responsible person to use purifying water. The absence of water or having need of water negates it legally. Therefore, there is no ability without water sufficient for use on all the limbs once. Anything other than this is regarded as non-existent.
  5. The presence of ritual impurity. Therefore, an ablution upon an ablution is not required.
  6. The absence of menstruation and postnatal bleeding by their having ceased, as defined by Sacred Law.
  7. Shortage of time, because at that point the divine injunction becomes restricted. However, at the beginning of the prayer time the divine injunction is extended.

These above conditions can be summarised as one condition: the ability of the legally responsible person to purify with water.

Conditions of validity

There are three conditions of validity for the ablution.

  1. All the skin to be covered with purifying water, such that if the size of a pinhead remains from any part that is obligatory to be washed without water touching it the ablution is not valid.
  2. The cessation of ritual impurity whilst performing ablution because the ablution is not valid by appearance of urine or the flow of anything that invalidates the ablution.
  3. The removal of anything that prevents water reaching the body due to the density of the barrier, such as wax or fat. The substance must have density because oil fat or something similar does not prevent the water reaching the body due to the absence of any barrier.

These three conditions can be summarised as one condition: purifying water, as determined by Sacred Law, covering all the skin.

Posted by: fiqhplatform | August 27, 2011

What is permissible and not permissible in istinja’

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

ما يكره به الاستنجاء

لا يجوز كشف العورة للاستنجاء وإن تجاوزت النجاسة مخرجها وزاد المتجاوز على قدر الدرهم لا تصح معه الصلاة إذا وجد ما يزيله ويحتال لإزالته من غير كشف العورة عند من يراه .

ويكره الاستنجاء بعظم وطعام لآدمي أو بهيمة وآجر وخزف وفحم وزجاج وجص وشيء محترم كخرقة ديباج وقطن وباليد اليمنى إلا من عذر .

آداب قضاء الحاجة

ويدخل الخلاء برجله اليسرى ويستعيذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم قبل دخوله ويجلس معتمدا على يساره ولا يتكلم إلا لضرورة ويكره تحريما استقبال القبلة واستدبارها ولو في البنيان واستقبال عين الشمس والقمر ومهب الريح ويكاره أن يبول أو يتغوط في الماء والظل والحجر والطريق وتحت شجرة مثمرة والبول قائما إلا من عذر ويخرج من الخلاء برجله اليمنى ثم يقول الحمد لله الذي أذهب عني الأذى وعافاني

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 Etiquettes of cleansing oneself

(1) One should enter the toilet leading with the left foot;
(2) before entering seek refuge in Allah from the rejected Satan.
 

Allahumma inni  a`udhu bika min al-khubuthi wal khaba’ith
[O Allah I take refuge in You from demons, male and female];


(3)  one should sit leaning upon the left foot;
(4) and not speak, except out of necessity.

It is makruh tahrim (whilst relieving oneself) to have one’s face or back towards the Qibla, even though one is in a building. To urinate towards the sun or moon is makruh  [tanzih according to Ibn `Abidin];

it is also makruh to sit and urinate in the direction of the wind.

It is makruh:

(1) To urinate or defecate in water;
(2) under some shade; in a hole; on the path;
(3) under a fruit tree;
(4) or urinate standing without an excuse.

One should leave the lavatory with one’s right foot then recite

Ghufaranak alhamdulilla hilladhi adhhaba `annil adha-wa- `afani

“[O Lord] Your forgiveness. 
Praise be to Allah who rid me of the filth and gave me health.”

 
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[ ( فصل ) فيما يجوز به الاستنجاء وما يكره به وما يكره فعله ]
( لا يجوز كشف العورة للاستنجاء ) لحرمته والفسق به فلا يرتكبه لإقامة السنة ويمسح المخرج من تحت الثياب بنحو حجر وإن تركه صحت الصلاة بدونه ( وإن تجاوزت النجاسة مخرجها وزاد المتجاوز ) بانفراده ( على قدر الدرهم ) – وزنا في المتجسدة ومساحة في المائعة – ( لا تصح معه الصلاة ) لزيادته عن القدر المفوه عنه ( إذا وجد ما يزيله ) من مائع أو ماء

( ويحتال لإزالته من غير كشف العورة عند من يراه ) تحرزا عن ارتكاب المحرم بالقدر الممكن وأما إذا لم يزد إلا بالضم لما في المخرج فلا يضر تركه لأن ما في المخرج ساقط الاعتبار

( ويكره الاستنجاء بعظم ) وروث لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام ” لا تستنجوا بالروث ولا بالعظام فإنهما زاد إخوانكم من الجن ” فإذا وجدوهما صار العظم كأن لم يؤكل فيأكلونه وصار الروث شعيرا وتبنا لدوابهم معجزة للنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والنهي يقتضي التحريم ( وطعام لآدمي أو بهيمة ) للإهانة والإسراف وقد نهى عنه عليه الصلاة والسلام ( وآجر ) بمد الهمزة وضم الجيم وتشديد الراء المهملة فارسي معرب وهو الطوب بلغة أهل مصر ويقال له آجور على وزن فاعول – اللبن المحرق – فلا ينقي المحل ويؤذيه فيكره ( وخزف ) صغار الحصى فلا ينقي ويلوث اليد ( وفحم ) لتلويثه ( وزجاج وجص ) لأنه يضر المحل ( وشيء محترم ) لتقومه ( كخرقه ديباج وقطن ) لإتلاف المالية والاستنجاء بها يورث الفقر

( و ) يكره الاستنجاء ( باليد اليمنى ) لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم ” إذا بال أحدكم فلا يمسح بيمينه وإذا شرب فلا يشرب نفسا واحدا ” ( إلا من عذر ) باليسرى فيستنجي بصب خادم أو من ماء جار
( ويدخل الخلاء ) – ممدودا – المتوضأ والمراد بيت التغوط ( برجله اليسرى ) ابتداء مستور الرأس استحبابا تكرمة لليمنى لأنه مستقذر يحضره الشيطان

( و ) لهذا ( يستعيذ ) أي يعتصم ( بالله من الشيطان الرجيم قبل دخوله ) وقبل كشف عورته ويقدم تسمية الله تعالى على الاستعاذة لقوله عليه الصلاة والسلام ” ستر ما بين أعين الجن وعورات بني آدم إذا دخل أحدكم الخلاء أن يقول بسم الله ” ولقوله عليه السلام ” إن الحشوش محتضرة فإذا أتي فليقل أعوذ بالله من الخبث والخبائث ” والشيطان معروف وهو من شطن يشطن إذا بعد ويقال فيه شاطن وشيطن ويسمى بذلك كل متمرد من الجن والإنس والدواب لبعد غوره في الشر وقيل من شاط يشيط إذا هلك فالمتمرد هالك بتمرده ويجوز أن يكون مسمى بفعلان لمبالغته في إهلاك غيره والرجيم مطرود باللعن والحشوش جمع الحش بالفتح والضم بستان النخيل في الأصل ثم استعمل في موضع قضاء الحاجة واحتضارها رصد بني آدم بالأذى والفضاء يصير مأواهم بخروج الخارج

( ويجلس معتمدا على يساره ) لأنه أسهل لخروج الخارج ويوسع في ما بين رجليه

( ولا يتكلم إلا لضرورة ) لأنه يمقت به

( ويكره تحريما استقبال القبلة ) بالفرج حال قضاء الحاجة واختلفوا في استقبالها للتطهير واختار التمرتاشي عدم الكراهة ( و ) يكره ( استدبارها ) لقوله عليه السلام ” إذا أتيتم الغائط فلا تستقبلوا القبلة ولا تستدبروها ولكن شرقوا أو غربوا ” وهو بإطلاقه منهي عنه ( ولو في البنيان ) وإذا جلس مستقبلا ناسيا فتذكر وانحرف إجلالا لها لم يقم من مجلسه حتى يغفر له كما أخرجه الطبراني مرفوعا ويكره إمساك الصبي نحو القبلة للبول

( و ) يكره ( استقبال عين الشمس والقمر ) لأنهما آيتان عظيمتان ( ومهب الريح ) لعوده به فينجسه

( ويكره أن يبول أو يتغوط في الماء ) ولو جاريا وبقرب بئر ونهر وحوض ( والظل ) الذي يجلس فيه ( والجحر ) لأذية ما فيه ( والطريق ) والمقبرة لقوله عليه السلام ” اتقوا اللاعنين قالا وما اللاعنان يا رسول الله ؟ قال الذي يتخلى في طريق الناس أو ظله ” ( وتحت شجرة مثمرة ) لإتلاف الثمر

( و ) يكره ( البول قائما ) لتنجسه غالبا ( إلا من عذر ) كوجع بصلبه ويكره في محل التوضؤ لأنه يورث الوسوسة ويستحب دخول الخلاء بثوب غير الذي يصلي فيه وإلا يحترز ويتحفظ من النجاسة ويكره الدخول للخلاء ومعه شيء مكتوب فيه اسم الله أو قرآن ونهي عن كشف عورته قائما وذكر الله فلا يحمد إذا عطس ولا يشمت عاطسا ولا يرد سلاما ولا يجيب مؤذنا ولا ينظر لعورته ولا إلى الخارج منها ولا يبصق ولا يتمخط ولا يتنحنح ولا يكثر الالتفاتات ولا يعبث بيده ولا يرفع بصره إلى السماء ولا يطيل الجلوس لأنه يورث الباسور ووجع الكبد

( ويخرج من الخلاء برجله اليمنى ) لأنها أحق بالتقدم لنعمة الانصراف عن الأذى ومحل الشياطين

( ثم يقول ) بعد الخروج ( الحمد لله الذي أذهب عني الأذى ) بخروج الفضلات الممرضة بحبسها ( وعافاني ) بإبقاء خاصية الغذاء الذي لو أمسك كله أو خرج لكان مظنة الهلاك وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عند خروجه ” غفرانك ” وهو كناية عن الاعتراف بالقصور عن بلوغ حق شكر نعمة الإطعام وتصريف خاصية الغذاء وتسهيل خروج الأذى لسلامة البدن من الآلام أو عدم الذكر باللسان حال التخلي .

 
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It is not permitted to expose the nakedness whilst cleansing oneself. It is unlawful and there is wrongdoing involved in it. Hence, it should not be done in order to establish a sunna.

The orifice is wiped from beneath the garment with the likes of stone. However, if it is left the prayer is still valid.

If the impurity spreads beyond the orifice and the amount spread is more than a dirham, in weight, if it is solid, or in size, if it is liquid, prayer is not valid. It is more than the amount exempted from cleansing by water or another liquid.

The person should, in this case, attempt to remove the impurity without exposing the nakedness, assuming the possibility of being seen, and thereby avoiding committing an unlawful act.

However, if the impurity is more than a dirham only after including the amount in the rear orifice, there is no harm in leaving it. Only that which has spread beyond the orifice is taken into account.

Cleansing oneself with any of the following is deemed offensive

  • Bones or rawth [Rawth has been defined in Section on Wells], because of his statement, upon him be peace, “Do not cleanse yourself with rawth or bones for they are the provision of your brethren amongst the jinn.” [Muslim 1007; Abu Dawud 36 to 39; and Tirmidhi 18]  When the jinn find bones, the bones become as if they have not been eaten and thus they can eat them. Likewise, the rawth becomes barley and straw for the animals of the jinn. This all occurs as a miracle granted to him, upon him be peace and blessings. The prohibition in the tradition necessitates the ruling of severe offence.
  • Food for humans or animals, because of the Prophetic prohibition of contempt for and waste of food.
  • Baked brick as, rather than cleaning the area, using it would be harmful.
  • Pebbles as rather than cleansing, using them would soil the hand.
  • Coal as it would create mess.
  • Glass or plaster, as it would be harmful to the area.
  • Anything that is respected for its value, such as a piece of silk brocade or cotton. Using these to cleanse would result in poverty through destruction of wealth.
  • The right hand, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “When one of you urinates, he should not touch his penis with his right hand. When he excretes he should not wipe with his right hand. When he drinks he should not drink in one breath.” [Bukhari 153; Muslim 613 to 615; Abu Dawud 31; Tirmidhi 15; Nasa’i 47 and 48; and ibn Majah 310] However, if there is a problem with the left hand, cleansing oneself is performed either through a servant pouring water or with flowing water.

It is recommended to enter the toilet with the head covered, left foot first. This is from the honour given to the right side, as the toilet is a dirty place with devils present. Thus, before exposing the nakedness and before entering the toilet, a person seeks refuge with Allah.  Before even seeking refuge, the person mentions the name of Allah because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “The screen between jinn and the nakedness of people on entering the toilet is to say ‘In the name of Allah.’” [Tirmidhi 606 and ibn Majah 297. Tirmidhi mentions that the tradition is singular and its chain is not strong. However, Munawi responds by saying that none of the narrators in the chain have been discredited, and a person would be correct in saying that the chain is sound.] In addition, he, upon him be peace and blessings, said, “Indeed these toilets [Hushush is the plural of hushsh and hashsh. The original meaning is ‘a garden of palm trees’. However, it began to be used to mean any place where a person excretes. Maraqi Falah.] are occupied by jinn. Therefore, when one of you enters the toilet say, ‘I take refuge in Allah from demons, male and female.’” [Abu Dawud 6 and Ibn Majah 296]

The word shaytan is derived from shatana yashtunu meaning ‘to be distant’. Shatana and shaytana are other verbal forms used. It is also suggested that the word is derived from shata yashitu meaning ‘to be destroyed’. The rebel is destroyed by his rebellion. It is possible that the word is a noun on the form f’ulan because of his extreme efforts to destroy others. Rajim means ‘being repelled by curse’. The meaning of jinn occupying toilets is that they lie in ambush waiting to harm people. However, after the person has finished, the jinn return to the open spaces they abide in.

The person should sit, inclining to the left side, whilst slightly spreading their legs. This allows them to relieve themselves easily. A person should not then speak, unless there is a necessity, because that person is deemed repugnant by doing so.

It is considered severely offensive to have one’s front or rear towards the direction of prayer, even if indoors, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “When you relieve yourself, do not have your front or rear towards the direction of prayer, but face east or west.” [Bukhari 144; Muslim 609; Abu Dawud 9; Tirmidhi 8; Nasa’i 21 and 22 and Ibn Majah 318] This is prohibited without exception. However, if a person sits with the front towards the direction of prayer forgetfully and then remembers and turns away, out of reverence for the direction of prayer, that person does not rise from that place until all sins have been forgiven. [Although, in the text of Maraqi Falah this has been mentioned as being related by Tabarani, this has actually been related by Imam Tabari as a raised tradition.]

There is a difference of opinion about having one’s front towards the direction of prayer whilst cleansing. Tumurtashi has chosen the position that it is not offensive.

It is offensive to hold a child towards the direction of prayer to urinate.

It is offensive to have one’s front:

  • Towards the direction of the sun or the moon because they are two mighty signs of Allah.
  • Where there is wind because that which comes out could come back and soil the person.

Equally, it is offensive to urinate

  • In water, even if it is flowing.
  • Near to a well, river or pond.
  • At a place that people take shade.
  • At an animal hole because of the harm to whatever may dwell therein.
  • At a road because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “‘Beware of the two that curse.’ They said, ‘What are the two that curse, Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘The one that excretes in public roads or in the shade.’” [Muslim 618 and Abu Dawud 25]
  • At the graveyard.
  • Beneath a fruit tree because of the damage that will be caused to the fruit.
  • Whilst standing, unless there is an excuse such as back pain, as this would normally result in the person’s contamination by the urine.
  • At the place where ablution is performed because this could create doubts in the mind of one performing ablution.

It is recommended to enter the toilet with clothes other than the ones used for prayer. However, if the same clothes are worn, care must be taken to avoid any impurity.

It is offensive to enter the toilet with anything that has the name of Allah or Koranic verses written on it.

 It is prohibited to

  • Expose the nakedness standing.
  • Remember Allah. Thus, “al-hamdulillah” is not said in response to someone sneezing.
  • Respond to “as-salamu ‘alaykum”.
  • Reply to the muezzin.
  • Look at the nakedness.
  • Look at the urine or faeces.
  • Spit.
  • Blow one’s nose.
  • Clear one’s throat.
  • Move about excessively.
  • Fidget.
  • Raise one’s sight to the heavens.
  • Remain sitting for too long because of the possibility that it could produce haemorrhoids or a liver ailment.

The person steps out of the toilet with the right foot first. This is the most appropriate foot to begin with by way of thanking Allah for the favour of having removed the harmful elements and of having left the presence of devils. After leaving, the person says, “Praise is to Allah who rid me of the hurt”, by the removal of the toxic residue, “and gave me health”, by the nutrients remaining. Had the harmful impurity remained, or the sustenance been removed, it would lead to death. Hence, the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, would also say on leaving the toilet, “Your forgiveness.” [Abu Dawud 30; Tirmidhi 8; and ibn Majah 300] This is an expression by which we accept our shortcomings in giving true thanks for the favour of having sustenance provided in the first instance, followed by having the nutrients retained and the harmful elements removed without any difficulty. Through this, our bodies remain healthy. Equally, it could be in recognition of our inability to remember Allah with the tongue at the moment of excretion.

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Posted by: fiqhplatform | August 2, 2011

How to cleanse oneself (Arabic & English)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

 

 
كيفية الاستنجاء

وكيفية الاستنجاء أن يمسح بالحجر الأول من جهة المقدم إلى خلف وبالثاني من خلف الى قدام وبالثالث من قدام الى خلف إذا كانت الخصية مدلاة وإن كانت غير مدلاة يبتدىء من خلف الى قدام والمرأة تبتدىء من قدام الى خلف خشية تلويث فرجها ثم يغسل يده أولا بالماء ثم يدلك المحل بالماء بباطن إصبع أو إصبعين أو ثلاثة إن احتاج ويصعد الرجل إصبعه الوسطى على غيرها في ابتداء الاستنجاء ثم يصعد بنصره ولا يقتصر على إصبع واحدة والمرأة تصعد بنصرها وأوسط أصابعها معا ابتداء خشية حصول اللذة ويبالغ في التنظيف حتى يقطع الرائحة الكريهة وفي إرخاء المقعدة إن لم يكن صائما فإذا فرغ غسل يده ثانيا ونشف مقعدته قبل القيام إذا كان صائما.

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Method of performing istinja’: if one’s testicles are hanging one should wipe with the first stone from the front to the back and with the second from the back to the front and with the third from the front to the back.  If the testicles are not hanging, then one should start from the back.  A female should start from the front to the back for the fear of defiling her vagina.

Thereafter, one should wash the hand and using water wipe the soiled area with the inner side of one, two, or even three fingers if needed.  A male will raise his middle finger over the rest when commencing the istinja’ he will raise the ring finger.  One should not suffice upon the use of one finger.  A female should raise her ring and middle finger simultaneously from the outset for fear of being sexually aroused.

The utmost should be done in cleansing oneself until the foul smell has been eliminated, whilst thoroughly relaxing one’s buttocks, unless fasting.  Upon completion one should wash the hand again.  If fasting one should wipe oneself before standing.

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The aim of cleansing oneself is to cleanse the orifice as thoroughly as possible. The recommended manner mentioned below is preferred because cleanliness is attained in the most comprehensive manner.

The man begins by wiping the rear orifice with a stone from the front to the back. A second stone is then used to wipe from the back to the front. A third stone is then used to wipe from the front to the back a second time. This order is used if the testicles are sagging, whether it is summer or winter, from fear of soiling them. However, if they are not sagging the man should cleanse initially from the back to the front and proceed from there. This order is preferred because it is a more thorough manner of cleansing.

The woman begins by wiping from the front to the back from fear of soiling her external genitals and proceeds from there.

After wiping in the above manner, the hands are washed with water to avoid the body having to absorb impure water at the beginning of cleansing oneself. The area is then rubbed with water with the pulp of one or two fingers at first, or three fingers if need be. The man raises the middle finger above the others from the beginning of cleansing oneself so that the impure water flows away without spreading over the body. After washing for a little while the ring finger is raised, followed by the little finger, and, if needed, the index finger. This enables cleansing to be performed thoroughly. One finger alone should not be used because it can possibly produce an ailment and it does not cleanse thoroughly.

The woman should raise the middle finger and the ring finger together from the beginning from fear of attaining pleasure if only one finger was used. This could possibly require her to perform a ritual bath without her even realising. The virgin should cleanse herself with the palm of her hand and not with her fingers from fear of possibly breaking her hymen.

The person cleansing oneself should persist in cleaning until the bad odour has been removed. There is no estimate for the number of times for this because the correct position is to leave this to the individual until convinced that they are clean.

The following are less strong positions

  • Someone afflicted with constant doubt should limit the washing to seven or three times.
  • Three times for the front orifice and five times for the rear orifice.
  • Nine times.
  • Ten times.

Whilst cleansing oneself, the person should strive to loosen the rear orifice so that as much impurity as possible can be removed from the anus, provided one is not fasting. The person fasting, however, should not do so to prevent the fast from being coming invalid. Likewise, the person fasting should avoid inserting a wet finger because it invalidates the fast.

After cleansing oneself with water the hands are washed a second time and the rear orifice is dried before standing. This will prevent the rear orifice from gathering water thereby breaking the fast. It is also recommended so as to protect the garment from being wetted with used water.

this was translated by a student of knowledge who is helping to run this blog
may Allah the Exalted reward them

Posted by: fiqhplatform | July 29, 2011

Criteria for istinja’ ( Arabic & English)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

حكم الاستنجاء

والاستنجاء سنة من نجس يخرج من السبيلين ما لم يتجاوز المخرج وإن تجاوز وكان قدر الدرهم وجب إزالته بالماء وإن زاد على الدرهم افترض ويفترض غسل ما في المخرج عند الاغتسال من الجنابة والحيض والنفاس وإن كان ما في المخرج قليلا ويسن أن يستنجى بحجر منق ونحوه والغسل بالماء احب والأفضل الجمع بين الماء والحجر فيسمح ثم يغسل ويجوز أن يقتصر على الماء أو الحجر والسنة إنقاء المحل والعدد في الأحجار مندوب لا سنة مؤكدة فيستنجي بثلاثة أحجار ندبا إن حصل التنظيف بما دونها.

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It is sunna to perform istinja’ from any najasa that exits from the front or back passage of the private parts and has not spread past the orifice. However, it is wajib if the najasa has spread past the orifice and is equivalent to the size of a dirham.  And fard if it has spread more than a dirham.

To wash away whatever (najasa) is in the orifice whilst bathing to remove a state of major ritual impurity, menstruation and postnatal bleeding is fard.  Even though the najasa may be of a small quantity.

It is sunna to do istinja’ with a cleansing stone or the like [Z: all things pure and not valued or venerated can be used in place of a stone,   Mf+t: p.30].  To perform istinja’ with water is preferred.  The best is to combine both water and stone, first by wiping with the stone and then washing.  To use only water or to wipe with stones alone is also permissible.

The usage of a prescribed number of stones is mustahab and not sunna mu`akkada. To use three stones is mustahab, even though one may achieve cleanliness with less.

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Cleansing oneself is an emphasised sunna for both men and women as it was regularly performed by the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings. However, it is not necessary because he, upon him be peace and blessings, did leave it on occasions. He, upon him be peace and blessings, said, “Whoever cleanses oneself should do so an odd number of times. Whoever does so has done well, but whoever does not there is no harm.” [Abu Dawud 35 and Ibn Majah 337] Some have mentioned that cleansing oneself falls under other categories, including obligatory. However, this has been done merely to simplify matters for people.

Cleansing oneself only applies to impurity. Therefore, cleansing oneself after having broken wind is an innovation, because wind, according to the correct position, is pure. Cleansing oneself is an emphasised sunna whether or not the impurity comes from the front or rear orifice. Thus, if either the front or rear orifice is touched by an impurity from an external source, even if it be puss or blood emanating from the veins, cleansing oneself purifies the orifice. This would be done in the same manner as following emissions from either orifice. Prayer is valid if either puss or blood flows from the veins because there is a consensus amongst the latter scholars that, should the puss or blood soil the body or garment more than the size of a dirham, it does not prevent the prayer being valid. However, if that same person were to sit in a small body of water, the water would become impure. 

Cleansing oneself is only sunna if the impurity does not spread across the rear orifice. However, if it does spread across the orifice and is the size of a dirham it is no longer considered as cleansing oneself. It is now necessary to remove the impurity with water or a liquid, the action now falling under the category of the removal of an impurity, as opposed to the cleansing of oneself. Hence, wiping the impurity away with stones will not suffice.

If the impurity that has spread is more than the weight of a dirham, and is a solid, or the size of a dirham, and is a liquid, it is obligatory for it to be washed away either with water or liquid.

It is obligatory to wash any impurity in the rear orifice when performing ritual bath from sexual impurity, menstruation or postnatal bleeding with absolute water, even if the impurity be small, so as to fulfil the obligatory washing of ritual impurity.

It is sunna to cleanse oneself with a cleansing stone, neither so rough as to cause damage nor so smooth as to not allow cleansing, because cleansing is the aim.  [An example of a rough stone is baked brick and an example of a smooth stone is carrelion.] Something similar to a cleansing stone may also be used. It must be pure, not valuable or respected and remove impurity without causing harm.

Washing with absolute water is best because with it purity is attained by agreement. Also, by using absolute water the sunna is established in the most comprehensive manner. Using stones merely reduces the amount of impurity present, whilst there is a difference of opinion over using other than absolute water for purification.

The best method, in all ages, is to wipe and then wash, in that order. Hence, first the impurity coming out from the orifice is wiped away, and then the orifice is washed. Allah has praised the people of Quba for washing with water after having used stones. Thus, using both is a sunna in all ages, according to the correct position, which is the fatwa.

It is valid to use water alone. This is second to using both water and stones in preference. To use stones alone is the least preferable. The sunna is attained by this, as the ultimate purpose is achieved, although the most preferable method carries the most reward.

It is recommended to use three stones, because of his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “Whoever cleanses oneself should do so an odd number of times.” [Abu Dawud 35 and Ibn Majah 337] This tradition indicates permissibility as opposed to necessity. Thus, the number is recommended and not an emphasised sunna. The tradition continues further, and is conclusive in providing an option, by his statement, upon him be peace and blessings, “Whoever cleanses oneself should do so an odd number of times. Whoever does so has done well, but whoever does not there is no harm.” [Abu Dawud 35 and Ibn Majah 337] Hence, it is recommended to cleanse oneself with three stones if purification is attained with less.

this was translated by a student of knowledge who is helping to run this blog
may Allah the Exalted reward them


 

Posted by: fiqhplatform | July 28, 2011

Istibra’ (Arabic & English)

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

 

فصل في الاستنجاء وفي حكمه وكيفيته

يلزم الرجل الاستبراء حتى يزول أثر البول ويطمئن قلبه على حسب عادته إما بالمشي أو التنحنح أو الاضطجاع أو غيره ولا يجوز له الشروع في الوضوء حتى يطمئن بزوال رشح البول .

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Cleansing oneself (Istinja’)

It is compulsory that one ensures that the drops of urine have ceased, and that one’s heart is content according to one’s general habit, either by walking, coughing, lying down or any other method.

It is unlawful to perform wudu’ until one is content that the drops of urine have ceased.

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Cleansing oneself is the removal of impurity with the likes of water. Removal can also be attained by reducing the impurity with the likes of stones.

Clearing the front orifice

A man musta clear his front orifice until all trace of urine has stopped. The aim is to clear the front orifice of any trace of dripping.

The traces of urine are only regarded as having stopped when wetness no longer appears on a stone placed on the front orifice. Only then can a man be satisfied that the urine has completely stopped.

A woman does not need to do this. She is merely required to wait a little and then cleanse herself.

For a man, clearing the orifice can be completed in any manner normal to him. This may include walking, clearing the throat, inclining to the left side, moving the feet, striking the ground with the feet or gently squeezing the penis. The manner of clearing the orifice is not restricted to any one way because of the difference in the way people do this.

Beginning ablution is not valid until a person is satisfied that the dripping of urine has completely stopped. Any wetness that reappears at the head of the penis is considered the same as flowing urine. Thus, this prevents subsequent ablution from being valid.

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  1. The term ‘must’ has been used because it is stronger than necessary. If an obligatory action is not performed, any conditional action becomes invalid. If a necessary action is not performed any conditional action remains valid.

this was translated by a student of knowledge who is helping to run this blog
may Allah the Exalted reward them

Posted by: fiqhplatform | July 28, 2011

Purification of wells ( Arabic & English)

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

 

فصل في احكام الآبار وتطهيرها

تنزح البئر الصغيرة بوقوع نجاسة وإن قلت من غير الأرواث كقطرة دم أو خمر وبوقوع خنزير ولو خرج حيا ولم يصب فمه الماء وبموت كلب أو شاة أو آدمي فيها وبانتفاخ حيوان ولو صغيرا البئر الكثيرة المياه ومائتا دلو لو لم يمكن نزحها وإن ماتت فيها دجاجة أو هرة أو نحوهما لزم نزح أربيعن دلوا وإن ماتت فيها فأرة أو نحوها لزم نزح عشرين دلوا وكان ذلك طهارة للبئر والدلو والرشاء ويد المستسقي.

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Coming Soon ……..

 

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The rules relating to wells centre on impurity entering wells whether it is animal droppings, an animal itself, a drop of blood or something similar.

The water of a small well – which is less than ten by ten arm lengths – is drained if an impurity enters, however small that impurity may be, such as a drop of blood or alcohol. A small amount of impurity makes a small body of water impure, even if no traces of the impurity appear. The exception to this is animal droppings.

The well is also drained if a pig falls in and its mouth has not touched the water, even if it emerges alive, because of its intrinsic impurity.

The well is drained by the death of a dog within it. Here, the condition is its death because it is not intrinsically impure, according to the correct position. Thus, if it does not die and emerges alive without having touched the water, the water is not impure.

It is also drained by the death of a sheep or a human being in it. Zamzam water was drained after a man had died in it on the instruction of ibn ‘Abbas and ibn Zubayr in the presence of a group of companions without any objection being raised [Daraqutni 62 to 63].

The well is also drained if an animal dies and then swells in it, even if the animal is small. The swelling causes impurity to spread.

How to purify the well

It is necessary to drain the well by removing two hundred average-sized buckets that are normally used at that well, if the well cannot be drained. It is recommended to increase this by one hundred buckets. Muhammad, Allah have mercy upon him, estimated the figure of two hundred buckets upon seeing the wells of Baghdad having plentiful water due to the proximity of the Tigris. The soundest approach is to base the estimation on the testimony of two men experienced in dealing with water – this is the most correct position.

The well becomes pure when the last bucket passes the mouth of the well, with them both. However, with Muhammad, it is when the last bucket separates from the water, even if, in the process, some water falls back in to the well, out of necessity. He [i.e. Imam Muhammad] stated, “Separation is a condition because without separation it will remain connected through the water falling back.”

If the necessary amount is drained over a period of days, or an impure cloth is washed over a period of days, it becomes pure.

If a chicken, cat or something resembling them in size dies in a well without swelling forty buckets must be drained, after having removed the animal. This figure of forty buckets for a chicken has been narrated from Abu Sa’id Khudri. Any animal similar in size takes its rule. It is recommended to increase this to fifty or sixty buckets, based on the narrations from ‘Ata and Sh’abi.

If a rat or something resembling it, such as a small bird, dies in a well without swelling twenty buckets must be drained, after having removed the animal. This is based on the response of Anas to the question, “A rat dies in a well and is immediately removed?” [The response being, “Twenty buckets must be removed”.] It is recommended to increase this to thirty buckets because of the possibility that the buckets mentioned in the tradition are larger than the estimated average-sized buckets.

It has been narrated from Abu Yusuf and Hasan that the draining of the well acts as purification for the well, the bucket, the rope, the pulley and the hand of the person drawing the water. All of these are impure due to the impurity of the water. Thus, they all become pure when the water becomes pure, thereby removing any difficulty. Other examples of this include the bottle becoming pure when wine changes to vinegar, or the jug handle becoming pure by the purity of the hand if held every time the hand is washed.

It is narrated from Abu Yusuf that four rats is equivalent to one rat, five to nine rats is equivalent to a chicken and ten rats is equivalent to a sheep. However, Muhammad held that three to five rats is equivalent to a cat and six rats are equivalent to a dog – this is the primary narration. Anything between a rat and a cat has the rule of the rat. Anything between a cat and a dog has the rule of the cat. Finally, if a rat and a cat both fall in they are treated as a cat. The smaller animal is overridden by the larger animal.

this was translated by a student of knowledge who is helping to run this blog
may Allah the Exalted reward them

Posted by: fiqhplatform | July 28, 2011

Mixed up containers and clothes (Arabic & English)

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate

فصل في التحري في الأواني والثياب

لو اختلط أوان أكثرها طاهر تحري للتوضؤ والشرب وإن كان أكثرها نجسا لا يتحرى إلا للشرب وفي الثياب المختلطة يتحرى سواء كان اكثرها طاهرا أو نجسا.

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Investigation (al-taharri)
[to determine pure from impure]

When some pure pots of water are mixed with impure ones, but the majority are pure, then one is obliged to discern the pure ones if intending to do wudu’ or drink water.  If on the other hand the majority are impure then one is exempted from doing this, unless one intends to drink water.  If pure and impure clothes are mixed then one is required to discern the pure from the impure regardless whether the majority are pure or impure.

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If a set of containers, most of them being pure but some impure, become mixed, a person must investigate before performing ablution or ritual bath. However, if the pure and impure containers are equal in number dry ablution must be performed. In this case, it is best to mix them or to pour them away and then perform the dry ablution. By this, the purifying water is no longer present for certain.

If three men were to find three containers, one of which is impure, and each one, after investigating, arrives at a different conclusion, their prayer would be valid individually.

If the containers are predominantly pure, before drinking from the containers the person must investigate to find the pure containers. Here, the minority is treated as though it does not exist.

If two containers become mixed and the person does not investigate but instead performs ablution with both containers, praying is valid as long two separate places, and not the same place, are wiped when wiping the head. If the first ablution was with pure water the ritual impurity would have been removed. The second ablution, though, would subsequently have made the limbs impure. This though is immaterial because the person who has no purifying water prays even with impurity present. But, if the first ablution was with impure water the second ablution would cleanse the impurity from the limbs. This would only be the case if two different parts of the head are wiped. If the same part is wiped with both waters it would be valid if the first ablution was with the pure water, but invalid if the second ablution was with the pure water – here, the wetness would become impure at the moment of contact. Hence, out of caution, due to the presence of doubt the ablution is not regarded as being valid.

If most of the containers are impure investigation is only required for drinking. Here, all of the containers are regarded as impure, based on the majority. Thus, according to most scholars, the containers should be poured away and dry ablution performed. Imam Tahawi holds that the water should be mixed and given to animals to drink.

As for clothes that have been mixed, a person must investigate whether the majority are pure or not. There is no substitute for clothes to cover nakedness, whereas earth acts as a substitute for water in removing ritual impurity.

If the person has only two set of clothes available and prays in one of them, after having investigated for the impure clothes, and then prays another prayer but, in this instance, the investigation results in a different conclusion, the original prayer is not valid . Personal deduction cannot be negated by itself, except in determining the direction of prayer. The direction of prayer can possibly change to another direction through investigation because it is a matter determined by Sacred Law. Impurity, though, is a tangible matter that does not change state and become pure by investigation. Thus, all prayers must be repeated if impurity becomes clear after investigation with clothes and containers. Hence, if through personal deduction one set of clothes are taken to be pure it cannot be made impure through another personal deduction. As a result, every prayer prayed with the initial investigation becomes invalid, but is valid with the resulting investigation.

If two just persons disagree over the permissibility of meat, such that one of the two claims that the meat has been slaughtered by a Zoroastrian while the other claims that a Muslim has slaughtered it, it is not permitted to eat. It remains in its original state of impermissibility due to the conflict in the reports. Conversely, if a person is informed about water, and again there is a conflict between two just persons over its purity, the water remains in its original state of purity.

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[1] Note of clarification :

If (a  person) selects (taharra) and prays Zhuhr in one of two garments, one of which is najis, then his selection falls upon the second one, and he prays Asr in it, it (i.e. the Asr prayer) is not valid, since we judged the first one to be pure by ijtihad, and any judgment passed by ijtihad can not be revoked by (another) ijtihad like it – execept for the Qibla, because it is a Shari3i matter, that can change from one direction to another as the selection changes. But najasa is something tangible, that can not be made pure by selection, as demonstrated by the fact that, if he prayed in it based on selection, and then it becomes clear (tabayyana) that it is najis, he has to redo the prayaer. So when we took the first one to be pure by ijtihad, due to necessity, it is not permitted to take it to be najis by means of another ijtihad like it. (However) if he became convinced (tayaqqana) that the garment he used at Zhuhr was najis, he has to redo the Zhuhr-prayer, and Asr is valid, this is stated in “Al-Wahiz”. In the same way, if he prays Zhuhr in one of (two garments), then Asr in the other, then Maghrib in the first one, and Isha in the second, then Zhuhr and Maghrib are valid, and Asr and Isha are invalid, and accordingly every prayer he prayed in the first garment is valid, and what he prayed in the second one is invalid, this is stated in “Majam3 al-Riwayat”. If he selects amongst vessels when most of them are pure, and amongst garments in all cases, and it later becomes evident (zhahara) that he was wrong, he must redo (the salat), as stated in “Al-Burhan”.

this was translated by a student of knowledge who is helping to run this blog
may Allah the Exalted reward them

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